RadioGraphics 2004; 24:S35-S58.
Kawashima A, Vrtiska TJ, LeRoy AJ, Hartman RP, McCollough CH, King Jr. BF.
With the recent introduction of multi-detector row helical computed tomography (CT), the radiologic evaluation of patients with urologic disease has changed rapidly. Two major approaches to CT urography have been developed. The first approach combines axial CT with timed excretory urography (EU) performed by using conventional radiography, digital radiography, or CT scanned projection radiography (SPR). This approach produces traditional projection urograms, and the timed imaging technique is familiar to radiologists and clinicians. Additional excretory phase CT can be performed when the EU findings are positive or indeterminate. Improved CT SPR processing technology produces radiographlike images, thus eliminating patient transportation between the CT and urography suites or the necessity for a CT suite with a ceiling-mounted x-ray tube and a modified CT table-top for performance of EU. The second approach to CT urography combines axial CT with thin-section excretory phase CT. The near-isotropic volume data set enables creation of high-resolution two-and three-dimensional reformatted images. However, the increased amount of radiation and the time required for data manipulation are concerns. Further studies evaluating large numbers of patients with various urothelial abnormalities will be necessary to determine the optimal CT urography technique for clinical practice.