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Spleen: Vascular Pathology Including Aneurysms Imaging Pearls - Educational Tools | CT Scanning | CT Imaging | CT Scan Protocols - CTisus
Imaging Pearls ❯ Spleen ❯ Vascular Pathology Including Aneurysms

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  • “Splenic artery aneurysms are the most frequent of visceral artery aneurysms. Splenic artery aneurysms may be intra or extra-splenic and most of the cases are calcified. If it measures more than 2.0 cm, there is high risk of rupture (76% fatal), and are often treated.Women with more than two pregnancies have high predisposition to aneurysm rupture and are often treated more aggressively.”
    MDCT Findings of Splenic Pathology
    Sangster GP et al.
    Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology 2021 (in press)
  • Interruption of the inferior vena cava: facts
    - Interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation is a rare congenital anomaly, in which the IVC is interrupted below the hepatic vein and venous return beyond this point is restored by the dilated azygos and hemiazygos veins draining into the superior vena cava.
    - this congenital anomaly could be isolated, but often it is part of more complex syndrome including for example cardiac malformations, asplenia, and polysplenia syndrome. Interruption of the IVC with azygos continuation is the second most common abnormality associated with polysplenia syndrome 
  • “The polysplenic syndrome is defined by the presence of multiple spleens, usually numbering between two and six. In contrast to accessory spleens, the spleens are of uniform size. Accessory spleens usually measure between 1 and 2 cm and are not considered as a form of the polysplenic syndrome. Splenosis, an acquired rather than congenital condition that arises in the context of traumatic splenic rupture, can be ruled out by patient history.”
    Polysplenia syndrome
    B. De La Villeon et al.
    Journal of Visceral Surgery,Volume 148, Issue 5,2011, Pages e395-e396,
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Facts
    - 3rd most common intra-abdominal aneurysm
    - Frequency of 0.2% to 10.4%
    - 4x more common in woman
    - 3x more likely to rupture in men
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Associated Conditions
    - Atherosclerosis
    - Hypertension
    - Portal hypertension
    - Cirrhosis
    - Pregnancy
    - Liver transplantation
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Associated With
    - Pancreatitis
    - Trauma
    - Post operative complication
    - Peptic ulcer disease
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Presentation
    - abdominal pain
    - melana or hematochezia
    - hematemasis
    - fact: pseudoaneurysms rupture in up to 37% of cases with mortality then approaching 90%
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Presentation
    - abdominal pain
    - melana or hematochezia
    - hematemasis
    - fact: pseudoaneurysms rupture in up to 37% of cases with mortality then approaching 90%
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Associated With
    - Pancreatitis
    - Trauma
    - Post operative complication
    - Peptic ulcer disease
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Associated Conditions
    - Atherosclerosis
    - Hypertension
    - Portal hypertension
    - Cirrhosis
    - Pregnancy
    - Liver transplantation
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Facts
    - 3rd most common intra-abdominal aneurysm
    - Frequency of 0.2% to 10.4%
    - 4x more common in woman
    - 3x more likely to rupture in men
  • Splenic Vascular Pathology
    - Aneurysm
    - Pseudoaneurysm
    - Fact: Aneurysms usually are incidental findings while pseudoaneurysms usually present with symptoms
  • "Although splanchnic artery aneurysms are relatively rare, they are being diagnosed with increased frequency given the widespread availability of MDCT and 3D imaging capabilities."

    MDCT and 3D CT Angiography of Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms
    Horton KM, Smith C, Fishman EK
    AJR 2007;189:641-647
  • "Although splanchnic artery aneurysms are relatively rare, they are being diagnosed with increased frequency given the widespread availability of MDCT and 3D imaging capabilities. It is important that these aneurysms be diagnosed accurately because they can carry a high morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic patients."

    MDCT and 3D CT Angiography of Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms
    Horton KM, Smith C, Fishman EK
    AJR 2007;189:641-647
  • Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms: Facts

    - Incidence of 0.01-0.2% in autopsy series
    - Most common is splenic artery aneurysm (60%), with hepatic artery aneurysm being second most popular (20%)
    - Aneurysm rupture is associated with high morbidity and mortality
  • Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms: Frequency

    - Splenic artery (60%)
    - Hepatic artery (20%)
    - SMA (5.5%)
    - Celiac artery (4%)
    - Pancreatic arteries (2%)
    - Gastroduodenal artery (GDA) 1.5%
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysms: Facts

    - 4x more common in woman than men
    - In woman association with pregnancy and multiparity
    - Although more common in woman more likely to rupture in men
    - Risk of rupture (2-3%) increases with pregnancy, portal hypertension, and after liver tralntation
  • "The most common finding was upper abdominal pain. Angiosarcoma of the spleen could be suggested in the majority of cases (83%) by using the imaging features of splenic mass with metastatic disease."

    Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: Imaging Characteristics in 12 Patients
    Thompson WM et al.
    Radiology 2005; 235:106-115
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Facts:

    - 3rd most common intra-abdominal aneurysm
    - Frequency of 0.2% to 10.4%
    - 4x more common in woman
    - 3x more likely to rupture in men
  • Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Associated Conditions

    - Atherosclerosis
    - Hypertension
    - Portal hypertension
    - Cirrhosis
    - Pregnancy
    - Liver transplantation
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Associated With:

    - Pancreatitis
    - Trauma
    - Post operative complication
    - Peptic ulcer disease
  • Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Presentation:

    - abdominal pain
    - melana or hematochezia
    - hematemasis
    - fact: pseudoaneurysms rupture in up to 37% of cases with mortality then approaching 90%
  • "Ultrasound and CT have made the diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm or false aneurysm more frequent. Endovascular treatment, the morbidity of which is low, is effective and spares the spleen."

    Management of splenic artery aneurysms and false aneurysms with endovascular treatment in 12 patients.
    Guillon R et al.
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2003 May-Jun;26(3):256-60.
  • Vascular Splenic Lesions: Differential Dx

    - Hemangioma
    - Hamartoma
    - Lymphangioma
    - Littoral Cell Angioma
    - Peliosis
    - Hemangiopericytoma
    - Angiosarcoma
© 1999-2021 Elliot K. Fishman, MD, FACR. All rights reserved.