Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Decision Aid for Small Kidney Masses
Shailin A Thomas, Mutita Siriruchatanon, Stephanie L Albert, Marc Bjurlin, Jason C Hoffmann, Aisha Langford, R Scott Braithwaite, Danil V Makarov, Angela Fagerlin, Stella K Kang
J Am Coll Radiol . 2022 Aug;19(8):935-944. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2022.05.017. Epub 2022 Jun 15.
Objective: To develop and pilot test a patient decision aid (DA) describing small kidney masses and risks and benefits of treatment for the masses.
Methods: An expert committee iteratively designed a small kidney mass DA, incorporating evidence-based risk communication and informational needs for treatment options and shared decision-making. After literature review and drafting content with the feedback of urologists, radiologists, and an internist, a rapid qualitative assessment was conducted using two patient focus groups to inform user-centered design. In a pilot study, 30 patients were randomized at the initial urologic consultation to receive the DA or existing institutional patient educational material (PEM). Preconsultation questionnaires captured patient knowledge and shared decision-making preferences. After review of the DA and subsequent clinician consultation, patients completed questionnaires on discussion content and satisfaction. Proportions between arms were compared using Fisher exact tests, and decision measures were compared using Mann-Whitney tests.
Results: Patient informational needs included risk of tumor growth during active surveillance and ablation, significance of comorbidities, and posttreatment recovery. For the DA, 84% of patients viewed all content, and mean viewing time was 20 min. Significant improvements in knowledge about small mass risks and treatments were observed (mean total scores: 52.6% DA versus 22.3% PEM, P < .001). DA use also increased the proportion of patients discussing ablation (66.7% DA versus 18.2% PEM, P = .02). Decision satisfaction measures were similar in both arms.
Discussion: Patients receiving a small kidney mass DA are likely to gain knowledge and preparedness to discuss all treatment options over standard educational materials.
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