Cinematic Rendering Technique in Adult Congenital Heart Disease
Victor Fiorentino, Harold Goerne, Prabhakar Rajiah
Semin Roentgenol . 2020 Jul;55(3):241-250. doi: 10.1053/j.ro.2020.06.013. Epub 2020 Jun 24.
Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) is a common referral in the cardiac imaging practice. Thanks to advances in surgical techniques and peri-operative care, more than 95% of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) now survive into adulthood, with most of them living till 60 years of age and beyond.1, 2, 3 ACHD patients require life-long clinical follow-up, with imaging performed to screen and evaluate postsurgical/interventional complications. In these patients, comprehensive delineation of the anatomy is essential to identify abnormalities, determine further management and provide a roadmap for future surgeries/interventions. Echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality used in ACHD. It provides functional information on the left ventricle; however, evaluation of the right ventricle is limited in adults due to acoustic window restrictions. 3D echocardiographic technique is available for anatomical evaluation, but it has a limited field of view (FOV) for visualizing extra-cardiac structures and cannot visualize air-filled structures. In addition, echocardiography is highly operator dependent and has an even more restricted FOV in patients with obesity and airway diseases.4
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