Cerebral venous anatomy: implications for the neurointerventionalist
Maksim Shapiro, Eytan Raz, Erez Nossek, Kittipong Srivatanakul, Matthew Young, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Rogelio Esparza, Peter Kim Nelson
J Neurointerv Surg . 2022 Jul 8;neurintsurg-2022-018917. doi: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2022-018917. Online ahead of print.
Meaningful contributions to neurointerventional practice may be possible by considering the dynamic aspects of angiography in addition to fixed morphologic information. The functional approach to venous anatomy requires integration of the traditional static anatomic features of the system-deep, superficial, posterior fossa, medullary veins, venous sinuses, and outflow routes into an overall appreciation of how a classic model of drainage is altered, embryologically, or pathologically, depending on patterns of flow-visualization made possible by angiography. In this review, emphasis is placed on balance between alternative venous networks and their redundancy, and the problems which arise when these systems are lacking. The role of veins in major neurovascular diseases, such as dural arteriovenous fistulae, arteriovenous malformations, pulsatile tinnitus, and intracranial hypertension, is highlighted, and deficiencies in knowledge emphasized.
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