Jordan D LeGout, Candice W Bolan, Andrew W Bowman, Melanie P Caserta, Frank K Chen, Kelly L Cox, Rupan Sanyal, Beau B Toskich, Jason T Lewis, Lauren F Alexander
Radiographics . 2022 Jul-Aug;42(4):1043-1061. doi: 10.1148/rg.210156. Epub 2022 Jun 10.
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign lesion occurring in a background of normal liver. FNH is seen most commonly in young women and can often be accurately diagnosed at imaging, including CT, MRI, or contrast-enhanced US. In the normal liver, FNH frequently must be differentiated from hepatocellular adenoma, which although benign, is managed differently because of the risks of hemorrhage and malignant transformation. When lesions that are histologically identical to FNH occur in a background of abnormal liver, they are termed FNH-like lesions. These lesions can be a source of diagnostic confusion and must be differentiated from malignancies. Radiologists' familiarity with the imaging appearance of FNH-like lesions and knowledge of the conditions that predispose a patient to their formation are critical to minimizing the risks of unnecessary intervention for these lesions, which are rarely symptomatic and carry no risk for malignant transformation. FNH is thought to form secondary to an underlying vascular disturbance, a theory supported by the predilection for formation of FNH-like lesions in patients with a variety of hepatic vascular abnormalities. These include abnormalities of hepatic outflow such as Budd-Chiari syndrome, abnormalities of hepatic inflow such as congenital absence of the portal vein, and hepatic microvascular disturbances, such as those that occur after exposure to certain chemotherapeutic agents. Familiarity with the imaging appearances of these varied conditions and knowledge of their association with formation of FNH-like lesions allow radiologists to identify with confidence these benign lesions that require no intervention.
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