A Decade of Success in Melanoma Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy: What Every Radiologist Should Know
Mark Chen, Daniel A Smith, Justin G Yoon, Derek Vos, Elias G Kikano, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Nikhil H Ramaiya
J Comput Assist Tomogr . 2022 Jul-Aug;46(4):621-632. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000001315. Epub 2022 Jun 4.
Treatment strategies for malignant melanoma have rapidly evolved over the past decade. Because of its propensity to develop advanced stage and metastatic disease, melanoma has contributed to the majority of mortalities among patients with skin cancer. The development of novel therapeutics such as immunotherapy and targeted molecular therapies has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced stage and metastatic malignant melanoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, BRAF/MEK inhibitors, and other revolutionary therapies have demonstrated remarkable success in the treatment of this common malignancy. Along with these advancements in systemic therapies, imaging has continued to play a critical role in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with malignant melanoma. As the use of these novel therapies continues to expand, knowledge of the evolving therapeutic landscape of melanoma is becoming critical for radiologists. In this review, we provide a primer for radiologists outlining the evolution of immunotherapy and targeted therapy in the treatment of melanoma. We discuss the critical role of imaging in evaluation of treatment response, including a summary of current imaging response guidelines. Last, we summarize the essential role of imaging in the evaluation of potential adverse events seen in patients with malignant melanoma undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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