Comprehensive review of acute small bowel ischemia: CT imaging findings, pearls, and pitfalls
Sitthipong Srisajjakul, Patcharin Prapaisilp, Sirikan Bangchokdee
Emerg Radiol . 2022 Jun;29(3):531-544. doi: 10.1007/s10140-022-02028-2. Epub 2022 Feb 5.
Acute small bowel ischemia is a life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate due to its lack of specific symptoms and laboratory profile, which render difficulty in establishing early diagnosis. The etiology of acute small bowel ischemia includes occlusive forms (arterial embolism, arterial thrombosis, and venous thrombosis) and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, of which arterial causes are far more common than venous causes. CT, the mainstay of accurate diagnoses, allows the identification of the features of vascular abnormalities and intestinal ischemic injuries, and helps clinicians to restore intestinal blood flow. Without treatment, the prognosis for acute small bowel ischemia is poor. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with the CT spectral findings of bowel ischemia are required to ensure rapid recognition of this condition.
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