Upper and Lower Tract Urothelial Imaging Using Computed Tomography Urography
Siva P Raman, Elliot K Fishman
Urol Clin North Am . 2018 Aug;45(3):389-405. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2018.03.004.
Computed tomography (CT) urography is the best noninvasive method of evaluating the upper urinary tract for urothelial malignancies. However, the utility of CT urography is heavily contingent on the use of proper image acquisition protocols. This article focuses on the appropriate protocols for optimizing CT urography acquisitions, including contrast administration and the timing of imaging acquisitions, as well as the use of ancillary techniques to increase collecting system distention. In addition, imaging findings are discussed that should raise concern for urothelial carcinoma at each of the 3 segments of the urinary tract: the intrarenal collecting systems, ureters, and bladder.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2018.03.004