Machine learning analysis for the noninvasive prediction of lymphovascular invasion in gastric cancer using PET/CT and enhanced CT-based radiomics and clinical variables
Lijing Fan, Jing Li, Huiling Zhang, Hongkun Yin, Rongguo Zhang, Jibin Zhang, Xuejun Chen
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2022 Apr;47(4):1209-1222. doi: 10.1007/s00261-021-03315-1. Epub 2022 Jan 28.
Purpose: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is associated with metastasis and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer, yet the noninvasive diagnosis of LVI is difficult. This study aims to develop predictive models using different machine learning (ML) classifiers based on both enhanced CT and PET/CT images and clinical variables for preoperatively predicting lymphovascular invasion (LVI) status of gastric cancer.
Methods: A total of 101 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery were retrospectively recruited, and the LVI status was confirmed by pathological analysis. Patients were randomly divided into a training dataset (n = 76) and a validation dataset (n = 25). By 3D manual segmentation, radiomics features were extracted from the PET and venous phase CT images. Image models, clinical models, and combined models were constructed by selected enhanced CT-based and PET-based radiomics features, clinical factors, and a combination of both, respectively. Three ML classifiers including adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and logistic regression (LR) were used for model development. The performance of these predictive models was evaluated with respect to discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness.
Results: Ten radiomics features and eight clinical factors were selected for the development of predictive models. In the validation dataset, the area under curve (AUC) values of clinical models using AdaBoost, LDA, and LR classifiers were 0.742, 0.706, and 0.690, respectively. The image models using AdaBoost, LDA, and LR classifiers achieved an AUC of 0.849, 0.778, and 0.810, respectively. The combined models showed improved performance than the image models and the clinical models, with the AUC values of AdaBoost, LDA, and LR classifier yielding 0.944, 0.929, and 0.921, respectively. The combined models also showed good calibration and clinical usefulness for LVI prediction.
Conclusion: ML-based models integrating PET/CT and enhanced CT radiomics features and clinical factors have good discrimination capability, which could serve as a noninvasive, preoperative tool for the prediction of LVI and assist surgical treatment decisions in patients with gastric cancer.
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