Acute cholecystitis: diagnostic value of dual-energy CT-derived iodine map and low-keV virtual monoenergetic images
Fahimul Huda, Christina A LeBedis, Muhammad M Qureshi, Stephan W Anderson, Avneesh Gupta
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 Nov;46(11):5125-5133. doi: 10.1007/s00261-021-03202-9. Epub 2021 Jul 5.
Purpose: To compare conventional and dual-energy CT (DECT) for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and gangrene.
Methods: Fifty-seven consecutive adult patients with abdominal pain who underwent IV contrast-enhanced abdominal DECT on a dual-layer (dlDECT) or rapid-switching (rsDECT) scanner from September, 2018 to April, 2021 with cholecystectomy and pathology-confirmed cholecystitis were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with 57 consecutive adult patients without cholecystitis from the same interval scanned with DECT. Images were reviewed independently by two abdominal radiologists with 12 and 16 years of experience in two sessions 4 weeks apart, blinded to clinical data. Initially, only blended reconstructions (simulating conventional single-energy CT images) were reviewed (CT). Subsequently, CT and DECT reconstructions including low-keV virtual monoenergetic images and iodine maps were reviewed. Gallbladder fossa hyperemia, pericholecystic fluid, subjective presence of gangrene, heterogeneous wall enhancement, sloughed membranes, intramural air, abscess, overall impression of the presence of acute cholecystitis, and intramural iodine density were assessed.
Results: Gallbladder fossa hyperemia was detected with increased sensitivity on DECT (R1, 61.4%; R2, 75.4%) vs. CT (R1, 22.8%; R2, 15.8%). DECT showed increased sensitivity for gangrene (R1, 24.6%; R2, 38.6%) vs. CT (R1, 5.3%; R2, 14%), heterogeneous wall enhancement (DECT: R1, 33.3%; R2, 63.2% vs. CT: R1, 7%; R2, 31.6%), and cholecystitis (DECT: R1, 86%; R2, 89.5% vs. CT: R1, 77.2%; R2, 70.2%). In addition, DECT was more sensitive for the detection of acute cholecystitis (R1, 86%; R2, 89.5%) vs. CT (R1, 77.2%; R2, 70.2%). Iodine density threshold of 1.2 mg/ml, 0.8 mg/mL, and 0.5 mg/mL showed specificity for gangrenous cholecystitis of 78.26%, 86.96%, and 95.65%, respectively, using the rsDECT platform.
Conclusion: DECT showed improved sensitivity compared to conventional CT for detection of acute cholecystitis. Iodine density measurements may be helpful to diagnose gangrene.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03202-9