Intravenous CT Contrast Media and Acute Kidney Injury: A Multicenter Emergency Department-based Study
Tse-Hsuan Su, Chih-Huang Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chan, Yon-Cheong Wong, Chang-Fu Kuo, Chih-Huang Li, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hsien-Yi Chen
Radiology . 2021 Oct 12;204446. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2021204446. Online ahead of print.
Background Although the historical risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after intravenous administration of contrast media might be overstated, the risk in patients with impaired kidney function remains a concern.
Purpose To investigate whether intravenous contrast media administration during CT is associated with a higher risk of AKI and further hemodialysis compared with the risk in patients undergoing unenhanced CT.
Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated patients who underwent contrast-enhanced or unenhanced CT in five Taiwanese emergency departments between 2009 and 2016. The outcomes were AKI within 48-72 hours after CT, AKI within 48 hours to 1 week after CT, or further hemodialysis within 1 month after CT. The associations between contrast media exposure and outcome were estimated by using an overlap propensity score weighted generalized regression model. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Results The study included 68 687 patients (median age, 68 years; interquartile range, 53-74 years; 39 995 men) with (n = 31 103) or without (n = 37 584) exposure to contrast media. After propensity score weighting, contrast media exposure was associated with higher risk of AKI within 48-72 hours after CT (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.29; P = .007) but no significant risk at 48 hours to 1 week after CT (OR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.08; P = .90). Among patients with eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, exposure to contrast media was associated with a higher AKI risk (48-72 hours after CT: OR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.70; P = .007) (48 hours-1 week after CT: OR, 1.49; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.74; P < .001) and a higher risk of hemodialysis (OR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.70; P = .008). For patients with eGFR greater than 45 mL/min/1.73.m2, contrast media exposure was not associated with higher AKI risk (P > .05).
Conclusion Contrast-enhanced CT was associated with higher risk of acute kidney injury and further hemodialysis among Taiwanese patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 but not those with an eGFR of more than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2.
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