Role of Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multidisciplinary Perspective
Asser M Abou Elkassem, Simon S Lo, Andrew J Gunn, Brian M Shuch, Molly E Dewitt-Foy, Robert Abouassaly, Sandeep S Vaidya, Joseph I Clark, Alexander V Louie, Shankar Siva, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Andrew D Smith
Radiographics . Sep-Oct 2021;41(5):1387-1407. doi: 10.1148/rg.2021200202. Epub 2021 Jul 16.
With the expansion in cross-sectional imaging over the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of incidentally detected renal masses and an increase in the incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The complete characterization of an indeterminate renal mass on CT or MR images is challenging, and the authors provide a critical review of the best imaging methods and essential, important, and optional reporting elements used to describe the indeterminate renal mass. While surgical staging remains the standard of care for RCC, the role of renal mass CT or MRI in staging RCC is reviewed, specifically with reference to areas that may be overlooked at imaging such as detection of invasion through the renal capsule or perirenal (Gerota) fascia. Treatment options for localized RCC are expanding, and a multidisciplinary group of experts presents an overview of the role of advanced medical imaging in surgery, percutaneous ablation, transarterial embolization, active surveillance, and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Finally, the arsenal of treatments for advanced renal cancer continues to grow to improve response to therapy while limiting treatment side effects. Imaging findings are important in deciding the best treatment options and to monitor response to therapy. However, evaluating response has increased in complexity. The unique imaging findings associated with antiangiogenic targeted therapy and immunotherapy are discussed.
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