Bilateral adrenal enhancement revised-adrenal-to-spleen ratio as an appropriate mortality predictor
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 May;46(5):2107-2114. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02886-9. Epub 2020 Dec 11.
Robert Winzer, Ron Martin, Daniel Kaiser, Jan Christian Baldus, Sebastian Hoberück, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Dieter Fedders
Purpose: To investigate whether adrenal gland radiodensities alone or set in relation to either the inferior vena cava (IVC) or the spleen can predict hospital mortality in intensive care unit patients.
Methods: One hundred thirty-three intensive care patients (90 males, age: 66.3 ± 14.5 years) with an acute clinical deterioration were included in this retrospective analysis. CT attenuation (Hounsfield units) of adrenal glands, IVC, and spleen was evaluated by 2 radiologists separately. Adrenal-to-IVC and adrenal-to-spleen ratios were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, combined with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) as a classifier, was used to assess which parameter is the most suitable for short-term, intermediate-term, and overall mortality prediction. Interrater agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results: The highest discriminative power to distinguish between deceased and survivors was found for the adrenal gland-to-spleen ratio for the 72-h mortality. A threshold of > 1.4 predicted 72-h mortality with a sensitivity of 79.31% and a specificity of 98.08% (area und the curve (AUC) = 0.94; p < 0.0001; MCCs = 0.81). The positive likelihood ratio was 41; the positive predictive value was 92.20%. Adrenal gland-to-spleen ratio was also best suited to predict the 24-h and overall mortality. ICCs of HU measurements in adrenal gland, IVC, and spleen indicated a high interrater agreement (ICC 0.95-0.99).
Conclusions: To conclude, the adrenal-to-spleen ratio in CT in portal venous phase may serve as an imaged-based predictor for short, intermediate, and overall mortality and as reproducible prognostic marker for patient outcome.
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