A review of clinical and MR imaging features of renal lipid-poor angiomyolipomas
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 May;46(5):2072-2078. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02835-6. Epub 2020 Nov 5.
Mitchell P Wilson, Deelan Patel, Prayash Katlariwala, Gavin Low
Background: Lipid-poor angiomyolipomas (lpAMLs) constitute up to 5% of renal angiomyolipomas and are challenging to differentiate from malignant renal lesions on imaging alone. This review aims to identify clinical and MRI features which can be utilized to improve specificity and diagnostic accuracy for detecting lpAMLs in patients being considered for active surveillance rather than intervention.
Findings: Young age, female sex, and small lesion size are associated with lpAMLs in studies evaluating indeterminate renal lesions. The accuracy of criteria using T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, chemical shift imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement, multiparametric imaging, and radiomics are reviewed. Low T2 signal intensity is a particularly important MRI feature for lpAML. In studies with low T2 signal intensity, homogeneous early enhancement is a typical feature with an arterial-to-delay enhancement ratio > 1.5. Intratumoral hemorrhage with decrease in signal intensity on in-phase chemical shift imaging may be particularly useful for differentiating papillary renal cell carcinomas from lpAMLs in low T2 signal intensity lesions. Combining clinical and multiparametric MRI features can result in near-perfect specificity for lpAML. In select patients, clinical and MRI features can result in a high specificity and diagnostic accuracy for lpAMLs. These lesions can be considered for active surveillance rather than invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as biopsy or surgery.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02835-6