CT appearance of gastrointestinal tract mucormycosis
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 May;46(5):1837-1845. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02854-3. Epub 2020 Nov 10.
Samarjit Singh Ghuman, Pendyala Sindhu, T B S Buxi, Swapnil Sheth, Anurag Yadav, Kishan Singh Rawat, Seema Sud
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by fungi of order mucorales. It is most commonly seen in patients with an impaired immune system due to any cause. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is the least frequent type and may be a primary disease or a feature of generalized mucormycosis. Angioinvasion is the hallmark feature of mucormycosis, leading to bowel infarction which is the responsible for the most common clinical complaint of pain, and is also responsible for most of the imaging findings in this disease. The stomach is most commonly involved organ in the gastrointestinal tract and pneumatosis and lack of gastric wall enhancement are the most common imaging findings. Areas of bowel wall thickening and/ or lack of enhancement are seen in small bowel mucor and perforation can occur due to ischemia. Colonic mucor can present with mural thickening, or complete lack of definition or 'disappearance' of bowel wall with associated air containing collections. Mucormycosis affecting the bowel has a high mortality rate and early recognition and intervention may improve patient outcomes significantly. It should be suspected in immunosuppressed patients with imaging findings of unexplained bowel ischemia, infarction and/or pneumatosis without any obvious visible vascular thrombus.
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