CT, MRI and PET/CT features of abdominal manifestations of cutaneous melanoma: a review of current concepts in the era of tumor-specific therapies
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 May;46(5):2219-2235. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02837-4. Epub 2020 Nov 2.
Maxime Barat, Sarah Guegan-Bart, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Enora Guillo, Christine Hoeffel, Maximilien Barret, Sébastien Gaujoux, Anthony Dohan, Philippe Soyer
Abdominal manifestations in patients with cutaneous melanoma include involvement due to metastatic spread and immune checkpoint inhibitor induced adverse events. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of abdominal manifestations in patients with cutaneous melanoma and highlight the current imaging challenges in the era of tumor-specific therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a treatment with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of advanced cutaneous melanoma but are associated with several abdominal adverse events that must be recognized. CT has a role in the identification of colitis, enteritis and pancreatitis, whereas MRI has an important role in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Current evidence demonstrates that MRI should be the preferred imaging technique for the detection and characterization of hepatic and splenic metastases from cutaneous melanoma. The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT should be further evaluated but current literature suggests an efficacy in the detection of pancreatic metastases not seen on CT and MRI.
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