Management of Pulmonary Nodules in Oncologic Patients: AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review
AJR Am J Roentgenol . 2021 Jun;216(6):1423-1431. doi: 10.2214/AJR.20.24907. Epub 2020 Dec 23.
Jose A B Araujo-Filho, Darragh Halpenny, Colin McQuade, Gregory Puthoff, Caroline Chiles, Mizuki Nishino, Michelle S Ginsberg
Cancer survivors are at higher risk than the general population for development of a new primary malignancy, most commonly lung cancer. Current lung cancer screening guidelines recommend low-dose chest CT for high-risk individuals, including patients with a history of cancer and a qualifying smoking history. However, major lung cancer screening trials have inconsistently included cancer survivors, and few studies have assessed management of lung nodules in this population. This narrative review highlights relevant literature and provides expert opinion for management of pulmonary nodules detected incidentally or by screening in oncologic patients. In patients with previously treated lung cancer, a new nodule most likely represents distant metastasis from the initial lung cancer or a second primary lung cancer; CT features such as nodule size and composition should guide decisions regarding biopsy, PET/CT, and CT surveillance. In patients with extrapulmonary cancers, nodule management requires individualized risk assessment; smoking is associated with increased odds of primary lung cancer, whereas specific primary cancer types are associated with increased odds of pulmonary metastasis. Nonneoplastic causes, such as infection, medication toxicity, and postradiation or postsurgical change, should also be considered. Future prospective studies are warranted to provide evidence-based data to assist clinical decision-making in this context.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.20.24907