Cross-sectional Imaging Manifestations of Extrapulmonary Involvement in COVID-19 Disease
J Comput Assist Tomogr . 2021 Mar-Apr 01;45(2):253-262. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000001120.
Bernard F Laya, Thurl Hugh C Cledera, Timothy Reynold U Lim, Joseph Marce P Baluyut, Josefina Marie P Medina, Nelson V Pasia
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease has spread worldwide since it was first discovered in China's Hubei province in December 2019. Respiratory illness is the primary manifestation of COVID-19 disease, and its pathophysiology as well as the clinical and cross-sectional imaging manifestations has been adequately reported. However, there is emerging evidence of its multisystemic nature, with associated extrapulmonary manifestations including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, and neurological findings. There is still limited understanding with regard to the extrapulmonary involvement in this disease. This review aims to put together the prevalence, proposed pathophysiology, and the spectrum of clinical and cross-sectional imaging manifestations of associated extrapulmonary findings in COVID-19 disease.
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