Radiology of the neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract: a comprehensive review
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 Mar;46(3):919-935. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02773-3. Epub 2020 Sep 22.
Sundeep Malla, Pawan Kumar, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of neoplasms arising from the diffuse endocrine system (DES). The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the most common site of NEN. The WHO classification divides NEN into three broad categories viz. well-differentiated NENs, poorly differentiated NENs, and mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms. All GIT NEN have the potential to synthesize and secrete various bioactive substances which may lead to various clinical syndromes. The NEN may occur anywhere in the GIT and exhibit varying clinical presentation, prognosis, and metastatic potential. Further, some tumors show association with familial syndromes like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and neurofibromatosis type 1. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography-CT are the imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis, localization, and staging of GIT NEN. Management depends on the site, size, grade, and stage of the tumor with interventional radiology playing a significant role in some cases. This imaging review describes the role of a radiologist in the management of GIT NEN.
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