Locally advanced gallbladder cancer: a review of the criteria and role of imaging
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 Mar;46(3):998-1007. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02756-4. Epub 2020 Sep 18.
Pankaj Gupta, Kesha Meghashyam, Yashi Marodia, Vikas Gupta, Rajender Basher, Chandan Krushna Das, Thakur Deen Yadav, Santhosh Irrinki, Ritambhra Nada, Usha Dutta
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is among one of the gastrointestinal malignancies with extremely dismal prognosis. This is due to the advanced stage at presentation. Majority of the patients with GBC are not considered candidates for surgery because of the locally advanced disease or metastases. However, with the accumulating evidence regarding the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there is a need to correctly identify a subset of patients with locally advanced GBC who will benefit maximally from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and will be successfully downstaged to receive curative (R0) surgery. In this context, there is a lack of consensus and different groups have resorted to criteria for locally advanced disease eligible for neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on personal or institutional experiences. Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients with GBC as it helps stratify patients into resectable and unresectable. Imaging also has the potential to identify patients with locally advanced GBC and hence facilitate neoadjuvant chemotherapy and improve outcomes. In this review, we evaluate the various criteria for locally advanced GBC and the role of imaging in this scenario.
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