Current comments on contrast media administration in patients with renal insufficiency
Clin Imaging . 2021 Jan;69:37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.06.040. Epub 2020 Jul 2.
Heeseop Shin, Saeed Taghavifar, Sana Salehi, Peter Joyce, Ali Gholamrezanezhad
Contrast media administration has been associated with complications such as nephropathy, cardiovascular morbidity, and neurovascular events, particularly in patients with renal insufficiency. This association has been questioned in recent studies. This review was performed to summarize the most current evidence on contrast induced nephropathy (CIN), contributing factors, and considerations in patients with renal insufficiency. The risk of CIN was over-estimated by the previous studies, due to a lack of control groups or presence of non-randomized control groups, which led to a selection bias. However, the thresholds associated with an increased risk of CIN are controversial and require risk-benefit analysis on an individual basis. Regarding the administration of contrast media (CM) in the emergency setting, the majority of studies suggested that CM exposure does not meaningfully increase the risk of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients (including trauma patients). Several strategies have been suggested to reduce the risk of CIN, including volume expansion to increase renal blood flow, sodium bicarbonate or N-acetylcysteine administration, and use of low-osmolal contrast media in end-stage renal disease.
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