EUS is accurate in characterizing pancreatic cystic lesions; a prospective comparison with cross-sectional imaging in resected cases
Surg Endosc . 2020 Dec 1. doi: 10.1007/s00464-020-08166-3. Online ahead of print.
Sahar Wesali, Mehmet A Demir, Caroline S Verbeke, Mats Andersson, Svein Olav Bratlie, Riadh Sadik
Background: Imaging modalities for characterizing pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) is a known uncertainty. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound morphology, cytology and cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (EUS-FNA-CEA) with cross-sectional imaging in resected PCLs.
Methods: The cross-sectional imaging and EUS-FNA-CEA results were collected in an academic tertiary referral centre using histology of the surgical specimen as the diagnostic standard.
Results: Of 289 patients undergoing evaluation for PCL with cross-sectional imaging and EUS-FNA between February 2007 and March 2017, 58 underwent surgical resection providing a final diagnosis of the PCLs: 45 mucinous, 5 serous, 1 pseudocyst, 2 endocrine, 2 solid pseudopapillary neoplasms and 3 other. EUS-FNA-CEA was more accurate than cross-sectional imaging in diagnosing mucinous PCLs (95% vs. 83%, p = 0.04). Ninety-two percent of the PCLs with high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma were smaller than 3 cm in diameter. The sensitivity of EUS-FNA-CEA and cross-sectional imaging for detecting PCLs with high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma were 33% and 5% (p = 0.03), respectively. However, there was no difference in accuracy between the modalities (62% vs. 66%, p = 0.79). The sensitivity for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinomas only was 64% for EUS-FNA-CEA and 9% for cross-sectional imaging (p = 0.03). Overall, EUS-FNA-CEA provided a correct diagnosis in more patients with PCLs than cross-sectional imaging (72% vs. 50%, p = 0.01).
Conclusions: EUS-FNA-CEA is accurate and should be considered a complementary test in the diagnosis of PCLs. However, the detection of PCLs with high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma needs to be improved. Cyst size does not seem to be a reliable predictor of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma.
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