Decoding Genes: Current Update on Radiogenomics of Select Abdominal Malignancies
Radiographics . 2020 Oct;40(6):1600-1626. doi: 10.1148/rg.2020200042.
Venkata S Katabathina, Haneen Marji, Lokesh Khanna, Nisha Ramani, Sireesha Yedururi, Anil Dasyam, Christine O Menias, Srinivasa R Prasad
Technologic advances in chromosomal analysis and DNA sequencing have enabled genome-wide analysis of cancer cells, yielding considerable data on the genetic basis of malignancies. Evolving knowledge of tumor genetics and oncologic pathways has led to a better understanding of histopathologic features, tumor classification, tumor biologic characteristics, and imaging findings and discovery of targeted therapeutic agents. Radiogenomics is a rapidly evolving field of imaging research aimed at correlating imaging features with gene mutations and gene expression patterns, and it may provide surrogate imaging biomarkers that may supplant genetic tests and be used to predict treatment response and prognosis and guide personalized treatment options. Multidetector CT, multiparametric MRI, and PET with use of multiple radiotracers are some of the imaging techniques commonly used to assess radiogenomic associations. Select abdominal malignancies demonstrate characteristic imaging features that correspond to gene mutations. Recent advances have enabled us to understand the genetics of steatotic and nonsteatotic hepatocellular adenomas, a plethora of morphologic-molecular subtypes of hepatic malignancies, a variety of clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas, a myriad of hereditary and sporadic exocrine and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, and the development of targeted therapeutic agents for gastrointestinal stromal tumors based on characteristic KIT gene mutations. Mutations associated with aggressive phenotypes of these malignancies can sometimes be predicted on the basis of their imaging characteristics. Radiologists should be familiar with the genetics and pathogenesis of common cancers that have associated imaging biomarkers, which can help them be integral members of the cancer management team and guide clinicians and pathologists.
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