CT for Pre- and Postprocedural Evaluation of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement
Radiographics . 2020 Oct;40(6):1528-1553. doi: 10.1148/rg.2020200027.
Praveen Ranganath, Alastair Moore, Mayra Guerrero, Jeremy Collins, Thomas Foley, Eric Williamson, Prabhakar Rajiah
Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is a catheter-based interventional technique for treating mitral valve disease in patients who are at high risk for open mitral valve surgery and with unfavorable anatomy for minimally invasive edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair. There are several TMVR devices with different anchoring mechanisms, delivered by either transapical or transseptal approaches. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality used for characterization and quantification of mitral valve disorders. CT is complementary to echocardiography and has several advantages, including high isotropic spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, large field of view, multiplanar reconstruction capabilities, and rapid turnaround time. CT is essential for multiple aspects of preprocedural planning. Accurate and reproducible techniques to prescribe the mitral annulus at CT have been described from which important measurements such as the area, perimeter, trigone-trigone distance, intercommissural distance, and septolateral distance are obtained. The neo-left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) can be simulated by placing a virtual prosthesis in the CT data to predict the risk of TMVR-induced LVOT obstruction. The anatomy of the landing zone and subvalvular apparatus as well as the relationship of the virtual device to adjacent structures such as the coronary sinus and left circumflex coronary artery can be evaluated. CT also stimulates procedural fluoroscopic angles. CT can be used to evaluate the chest wall for transapical access and the atrial septum for transseptal access. Follow-up CT is useful in identifying complications such as LVOT obstruction, paravalvular leak, pseudoaneurysm, and valve embolization.
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