Parathyroid 4D CT: What the Surgeon Wants to Know
Radiographics . Sep-Oct 2020;40(5):1383-1394. doi: 10.1148/rg.2020190190. Epub 2020 Jul 17.
Paul M Bunch, Gregory W Randolph, Jennifer A Brooks, Valerie George, Jennifer Cannon, Hillary R Kelly
Parathyroid four-dimensional (4D) CT is an increasingly used and powerful tool for preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid tissue in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism. Accurate and precise localization of a single adenoma facilitates minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, and localization of multiglandular disease aids bilateral neck exploration. However, many radiologists find the interpretation of these examinations to be an intimidating challenge. The authors review parathyroid 4D CT findings of typical and atypical parathyroid lesions and provide illustrative examples. Relevant anatomy, embryology, and operative considerations with which the radiologist should be familiar to provide clinically useful image interpretations are also discussed. The most important 4D CT information to the surgeon includes the number, size, and specific location of candidate parathyroid lesions with respect to relevant surgical landmarks; the radiologist's opinion and confidence level regarding what each candidate lesion represents; and the presence or absence of ectopic or supernumerary parathyroid tissue, concurrent thyroid pathologic conditions, and arterial anomalies associated with a nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve. The authors provide the radiologist with an accessible and practical approach to performing and interpreting parathyroid 4D CT images, detail what the surgeon really wants to know from the radiologist and why, and provide an accompanying structured report outlining the key information to be addressed. By accurately reporting and concisely addressing the key information the surgeon desires from a parathyroid 4D CT examination, the radiologist substantially impacts patient care by enabling the surgeon to develop and execute the best possible operative plan for each patient.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020190190