Preoperative Staging of Gastric Cancer Using Computed Tomography and Its Correlation With Histopathology With Emphasis on Multi-planar Reformations and Virtual Gastroscopy
J Gastrointest Cancer . 2020 Jun 13. doi: 10.1007/s12029-020-00436-6. Online ahead of print.
Abdul Haseeb Wani, Arshed Hussain Parry, Imza Feroz, Naseer Ahmad Choh
Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world. Preoperative staging of gastric cancer has assumed pivotal role in deciding appropriate management of gastric cancer with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) using hydro- and gaseous distension of stomach superseding endoscopic ultrasound in tumor (T) and nodal (N) staging. We undertook this study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in the T and N staging of gastric cancer with an attempt to differentiate between early and advanced gastric carcinomas.
Methods: A total of 160 patients with endoscopically diagnosed and biopsy-proven gastric cancer were subjected to MDCT after adequate gaseous and hydro-distention of stomach. Multi-planar reformatted (MPR) as well as virtual gastroscopy images were also obtained. Gastric lesions were categorized into T1 to T4 stages with N staging from N0 to N3. Preoperative CT findings were correlated with histopathological findings.
Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy of T staging in our study was 82.5% (132/160) with an accuracy of 75% (120/160) for N staging. The diagnostic accuracy of CT for early gastric carcinoma in our study was 93.75% with high specificity of 96% but low sensitivity of 66.7%.
Conclusion: MDCT using gaseous and hydro-distension of stomach is an excellent modality for near accurate preoperative T staging of gastric cancer. However, CT has a limited role in the N staging of gastric cancer. This study also suggested that the combined use of virtual gastroscopy and MPR images helps in better detection of early gastric cancers.
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