Automatic 3D liver location and segmentation via convolutional neural network and graph cut
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2017 Feb;12(2):171-182. doi: 10.1007/s11548-016-1467-3. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
Lu F, Wu F, Hu P, Peng Z, Kong D.
PURPOSE: Segmentation of the liver from abdominal computed tomography (CT) images is an essential step in some computer-assisted clinical interventions, such as surgery planning for living donor liver transplant, radiotherapy and volume measurement. In this work, we develop a deep learning algorithm with graph cut refinement to automatically segment the liver in CT scans.
METHODS: The proposed method consists of two main steps: (i) simultaneously liver detection and probabilistic segmentation using 3D convolutional neural network; (ii) accuracy refinement of the initial segmentation with graph cut and the previously learned probability map.
RESULTS: The proposed approach was validated on forty CT volumes taken from two public databases MICCAI-Sliver07 and 3Dircadb1. For the MICCAI-Sliver07 test dataset, the calculated mean ratios of volumetric overlap error (VOE), relative volume difference (RVD), average symmetric surface distance (ASD), root-mean-square symmetric surface distance (RMSD) and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSD) are 5.9, 2.7 %, 0.91, 1.88 and 18.94 mm, respectively. For the 3Dircadb1 dataset, the calculated mean ratios of VOE, RVD, ASD, RMSD and MSD are 9.36, 0.97 %, 1.89, 4.15 and 33.14 mm, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is fully automatic without any user interaction. Quantitative results reveal that the proposed approach is efficient and accurate for hepatic volume estimation in a clinical setup. The high correlation between the automatic and manual references shows that the proposed method can be good enough to replace the time-consuming and nonreproducible manual segmentation method.