Unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Role of CT quantitative imaging biomarkers for predicting outcomes of patients treated with chemotherapy.
Eur J Radiol. 2019 Apr;113:188-197. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.02.009. Epub 2019 Feb 11.
Cheng SH1, Cheng YJ2, Jin ZY1, Xue HD3.
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine if computed tomographic (CT) texture analysis measurements of the tumor are independently associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), including both unresectable locally advanced and metastatic PDAC, who were treated with chemotherapy.
METHODS: After an institutional review board waiver was obtained, contrast material-enhanced CT studies in 41 patients with unresectable PDAC who underwent contrast-enhanced CT before chemotherapy between 2014 and 2017 were analyzed in terms of tumor texture, with quantification of mean gray-level intensity (Mean), entropy, mean of positive pixels (MPP), kurtosis, standard deviation (SD), and skewness for fine to coarse textures (spatial scaling factor (SSF) 0-6, respectively). The association between pretreatment and posttreatment texture parameters, as well as Δ value (difference between posttreatment and pretreatment texture parameters), and survival time was assessed by using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Findings from the multivariate Cox model indicated that tumor size, tumor SD (HR, 0.942; 95% CI: 0.898, 0.988) and skewness (HR, 0.407; 95% CI: 0.172, 0.962) measurements with SSF = 3, and tumor SD (HR, 0.958; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.997) measurements with SSF = 4 were significantly and independently associated with PFS, while tumor size and tumor SD (HR, 0.928; 95% CI: 0.882, 0.976) measurements with SSF = 3 were significantly and independently associated with OS. None of the post-therapy texture parameters or Δ value had a significant association with OS or PFS in multivariate Cox regression models. Medium SD (SSF = 3) of more than 38.38 and coarse SD (SSF = 4) of more than 40.67 were associated with longer PFS after chemotherapy (for SSF = 3, median PFS was 10.0 vs 6.0 months [P = 0.024], and for SSF = 4, median PFS was 12.0 vs 6.0 months [P = 0.003]). SD of 38.38 or greater (SSF = 3) as a dichotomized variable was a significant positive prognostic factor for OS (median OS, 20.0 vs 9.0 months [P = 0.04]). Survival models that included a combination of pretreatment SD (SSF = 3) with tumor size, had the potential to perform better than SD alone, while having no statistical significance in this study (area under the ROC curve, 0.756 vs 0.715 [P = 0.066]).
CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment CT quantitative imaging biomarkers from texture analysis are associated with PFS and OS in patients with unresectable PDAC who were treated with chemotherapy, and the combination of pretreatment texture parameters and tumor size have the potential to perform better in survival models than imaging biomarker alone.
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