Radiography, CT, and MRI of Hip and Lower Limb Disorders in Children and Adolescents.
Radiographics. 2019 May-Jun;39(3):779-794. doi: 10.1148/rg.2019180101.
Silva MS1, Fernandes ARC1, Cardoso FN1, Longo CH1, Aihara AY1.
Infants and children are vulnerable to congenital and developmental hip and lower extremity disorders. These disorders have diverse causes in pediatric patients, and owing to potential related complications that can lead to degenerative disease in adulthood, an accurate diagnosis is essential. A common disease is developmental dysplasia of the hip, which affects nearly 1% of newborns. This condition is best evaluated with US and conventional radiography. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects approximately 0.01% of young teenagers and is initially evaluated with radiography. Femoroacetabular impingement is a risk factor for early osteoarthritis and can be assessed with radiography, CT, or MRI. Limb length discrepancy is defined as a greater than 2-cm difference in length between paired bilateral lower extremities. There are several methods of measuring this difference, and the use of an accurate imaging modality is essential for treatment. Developmental bowing is a physiologic condition involving varus angulation of the knee and is best evaluated by using conventional radiography. Blount disease is a progressive pathologic genu varum centered at the tibia; the three subtypes are infantile, juvenile, and adolescent. In- and out-toeing disorders are caused by abnormal tibial and femoral torsion that usually self-corrects during lower limb growth. The ability to recognize these conditions is essential for differentiating those that will resolve spontaneously versus those that will require treatment. The imaging features of congenital and developmental hip and lower extremity disorders are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnosis, radiologic assessment, associated findings, and classification. ©RSNA, 2019.
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