A Roadmap for Foundational Research on Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging: From the 2018 NIH/RSNA/ACR/The Academy Workshop.
Radiology. 2019 Apr 16:190613. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2019190613. [Epub ahead of print]
Langlotz CP1, Allen B1, Erickson BJ1, Kalpathy-Cramer J1, Bigelow K1, Cook TS1, Flanders AE1, Lungren MP1, Mendelson DS1, Rudie JD1, Wang G1, Kandarpa K1.
Imaging research laboratories are rapidly creating machine learning systems that achieve expert human performance using open-source methods and tools. These artificial intelligence systems are being developed to improve medical image reconstruction, noise reduction, quality assurance, triage, segmentation, computer-aided detection, computer-aided classification, and radiogenomics. In August 2018, a meeting was held in Bethesda, Maryland, at the National Institutes of Health to discuss the current state of the art and knowledge gaps and to develop a roadmap for future research initiatives. Key research priorities include: 1, new image reconstruction methods that efficiently produce images suitable for human interpretation from source data; 2, automated image labeling and annotation methods, including information extraction from the imaging report, electronic phenotyping, and prospective structured image reporting; 3, new machine learning methods for clinical imaging data, such as tailored, pretrained model architectures, and federated machine learning methods; 4, machine learning methods that can explain the advice they provide to human users (so-called explainable artificial intelligence); and 5, validated methods for image de-identification and data sharing to facilitate wide availability of clinical imaging data sets. This research roadmap is intended to identify and prioritize these needs for academic research laboratories, funding agencies, professional societies, and industry.