Multimodality imaging of acute locoregional and systemic complications in the setting of assisted reproduction.
Emerg Radiol. 2019 Apr;26(2):205-219. doi: 10.1007/s10140-018-01665-w. Epub 2019 Jan 10.
Hirshberg B1, Rheinboldt M2.
Over the past 40 years since the first in vitro fertilization was performed, both the role of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in establishing viable pregnancy as well as the available treatment options have expanded enormously. Annually in the USA, nearly 2% of pregnancies now employ some form of ART assistance, with in vitro fertilization (IVF) being the most commonly utilized methodology. Both maternal and fetal risks are elevated in ART pregnancies, the latter including adverse outcome due to both increased gestational number as well as advanced maternal age. Maternal risks may be divided into locoregional and systemic complications. Adverse pelvic complications include those relating to gamete harvesting and transfer, ovarian hyperstimulation, the sequela of ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies, as well as ovarian torsion, all of which are elevated in the ART cohort. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is the most commonly encountered complication, with both systemic and pelvic features relating to increased vascular permeability, hemoconcentration, and ascites. While life-threatening cases are relatively rare, moderate and severe manifestations may occur in up to 10% of ART cycles and, as such, are a not infrequent cause for ER visitation. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging manifestations of ART complications as well as their prognostic implications will facilitate a timely diagnosis and assist the interpreting radiologist in best expediting appropriate clinical care. In this article, we will briefly discuss the current methodology of ART then present an imaging-based multimodality review of the potentially encountered adverse maternal sequela, highlighting key diagnostic features and differential considerations as well as potential prognostic implications.