Imaging features related with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Feb;44(2):509-516. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1758-y.
An C1, Kim MJ2.
We discuss various imaging features that have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not included in the current staging systems: findings related with microvascular invasion, tumor encapsulation, intratumoral fat, presence of satellite nodules, peritumoral hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic-acid enhanced MRI, restricted diffusion, and irregular rim-like hyperenhancement. Current evidence suggests that larger (> 2 cm) tumor size, presence of satellite nodules, presence of irregular rim-like hyperenhancement of a tumor, peritumoral parenchymal enhancement in the arterial phase, and peritumoral hypointensity observed on hepatobiliary phase images are independent imaging features to portend a worse prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.