Adnexal lesions detected on CT in postmenopausal females with non-ovarian malignancy: do simple cysts need follow-up?
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Feb;44(2):661-668. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1676-z.
Baheti AD1,2, Lewis CE3, Hippe DS3, O'Malley RB3, Wang CL3.
PURPOSE: To assess whether CT morphology of adnexal lesions in postmenopausal women with history of non-ovarian cancer could be used to discriminate benign and malignant lesions, particularly focusing on applicability of the ACR criteria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of contrast-enhanced CTs of 199 women, 55 years and older. Lesions were classified as simple cystic, complex cystic, solid-cystic, or solid based on CT morphology, and were diagnosed as benign, indeterminate, or malignant on follow-up imaging or pathology. Associated metastatic disease was noted, if present. Findings were analyzed to correlate CT morphology, primary tumor pathology, and metastatic disease pattern with eventual lesion diagnosis.
RESULTS: There were 223 adnexal lesions, including 123 (55%) simple cystic, 48 (22%) complex cystic, 40 (18%) solid-cystic, and 12 (5%) solid lesions. 186/223 (83%) lesions were benign, and 37/223 (17%) were malignant. Primary colorectal cancer was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of malignant adnexal lesions (OR 10.2, p < 0.001) compared to patients with other cancers. Adnexal malignancy was significantly associated with the presence of non-ovarian peritoneal metastases (p < 0.001). None of the simple cysts (including 85 cysts between 1-3 cm and 38 cysts > 3 cm) were found to be malignant (malignancy rate: 0.0%, 95% CI 0.0-3.0%). Complex cysts were more likely to be malignant than simple cysts (p = 0.002) and solid-cystic lesions were more likely to be malignant than complex cysts (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Simple adnexal lesions on CT in this cohort were unlikely to be malignant, supporting the ACR guidelines. A higher size threshold of 3 cm (vs. 1 cm) may be preferred in all cases of simple cysts for recommending further follow-up. However, more complex-appearing cysts need further evaluation as the risk of malignancy is increased. Peritoneal metastases have a significant correlation with malignant adnexal involvement.