Computed tomography-based texture analysis of bladder cancer: differentiating urothelial carcinoma from micropapillary carcinoma.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Jan;44(1):201-208. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1694-x.
Fan TW1, Malhi H2, Varghese B2, Cen S2, Hwang D2, Aron M2, Rajarubendra N2, Desai M2, Duddalwar V2.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography-based texture analysis (CTTA) in differentiating between urothelial carcinomas (UC) of the bladder from micropapillary carcinomas (MPC) of the bladder.
METHODS: Regions of interests (ROIs) of computerized tomography (CT) images of 33 MPCs and 33 UCs were manually segmented and saved. Custom MATLAB code was used to extract voxel information corresponding to the ROI. The segmented tumors were input to a pre-existing radiomics platform with a CTTA panel. A total of 58 texture metrics were extracted using four different texture extraction techniques and statistically analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to determine the differences between UCs and MPCs.
RESULTS: Of the 58 texture metrics extracted using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray level difference matrix (GLDM), 28 texture metrics were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for differences in tumor textures and 27 texture metrics were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for peritumoral fat textures. The remaining nine metrics extracted using histogram and fast Fourier transform analyses did not show significant differences between the textures of the tumors and their peritumoral fat.
CONCLUSIONS: CTTA shows that MPC have a more heterogeneous texture compared to UC. As visual discrimination of MPC from UC from clinical CT scans are difficult, results from this study suggest that tumor heterogeneity extracted using GLCM and GLDM may be a good imaging aid in segregating MPC from UC. This tool can aid clinicians in further sub-classifying bladder cancers on routine imaging, a process which has potential to alter treatment and patient care.