Value of Texture Analysis on Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI for Differentiating Hepatocellular Adenoma From Focal Nodular Hyperplasia.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Mar;212(3):538-546. doi: 10.2214/AJR.18.20182. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Cannella R1,2, Rangaswamy B1, Minervini MI3, Borhani AA1, Tsung A4, Furlan A1.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of texture analysis (TA) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images for differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 40 patients (39 women and one man) with 51 HCAs and 28 patients (27 women and one man) with 32 FNH lesions. All lesions were histologically proven with preoperative MRI performed with gadoxetic acid. Two readers reviewed all the imaging sequences to assess the qualitative MRI characteristics. The T2-weighted fast spin-echo, hepatic arterial phase (HAP), and hepatobiliary phase (HBP) sequences were used for TA. Textural features were extracted using commercially available software (TexRAD). The differences in distributions of TA parameters of FNHs and HCAs were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) values were calculated for statistically significant features. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the added value of TA. A p value < 0.002 was considered statistically significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Multiple TA parameters showed a statistically different distribution in HCA and FNH including skewness on T2-weighted imaging, skewness on HAP imaging, skewness on HBP imaging, and entropy on HBP imaging (p < 0.001). Skewness on HBP imaging showed the largest AUROC (0.869; 95% CI, 0.777-0.933). A skewness value on HBP imaging of greater than -0.06 had a sensitivity of 72.5% and a specificity of 90.6% for the diagnosis of HCA. Six of 51 (11.8%) HCAs lacked hypointensity on HBP imaging. A binary logistic regression analysis including hypointensity on HBP imaging and the statistically significant TA parameters yielded an AUROC of 0.979 for the diagnosis of HCA and correctly predicted 96.4% of the lesions.
CONCLUSION: TA may be of added value for the diagnosis of atypical HCA presenting without hypointensity on HBP imaging.