Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease From Other Causes of Fever and Cervical Lymphadenopathy: A Diagnostic Scoring System Using Contrast-Enhanced CT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Mar;212(3):665-671. doi: 10.2214/AJR.18.20262. Epub 2019 Jan 15.
Maki H1, Maki Y2, Shimamura Y3, Fukaya N4, Ozawa Y1, Shibamoto Y1.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic findings of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) of the neck in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and to develop a diagnostic scoring system to facilitate the diagnosis of KD versus other causes of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two blinded radiologists evaluated CECT images of 37 patients with KD and 92 patients without KD who had febrile cervical lymphadenopathy, first independently and then in consensus. Significant findings in CECT images were evaluated through cervical edema and lymph node scores. CT attenuation of the nodal low-attenuation area and its ratio to the CT attenuation of the trapezius muscle were measured. On the basis of these indexes, a diagnostic scoring system was developed to differentiate between patients with and without KD. Its diagnostic performance was determined using ROC curve analysis.
RESULTS: Retropharyngeal edema, lateral cervical edema, nasopharyngeal wall edema, level IIA lymphadenopathy, and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy were more common in patients with KD than in patients without KD (p < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001, 0.003, and 0.028, respectively). Level VB lymphadenopathy was more common in patients without KD (p = 0.013), and the presence of nodal low-attenuation areas with lower attenuation indexes (attenuation of nodal low-attenuation area ≤ 50 HU, or ratio of attenuation of nodal low-attenuation area to trapezius muscle attenuation ≤ 0.7) was specific to patients without KD. In cases of higher attenuation indexes and cervical edema and lymph node scores of 4 or higher, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnostic scoring system were 86% (32/37), 86% (79/92), and 86% (111/129), respectively, for diagnosing KD.
CONCLUSION: The proposed diagnostic scoring system was useful in differentiating between patients with and without KD.