Dual-Energy CT-derived Iodine Maps: Use in Assessing Pleural Carcinomatosis.
Radiology. 2019 Mar;290(3):796-804. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018181567. Epub 2019 Jan 15.
Lennartz S1, Le Blanc M1, Zopfs D1, Große Hokamp N1, Abdullayev N1, Laukamp KR1, Haneder S1, Borggrefe J1, Maintz D1, Persigehl T1.
Purpose To evaluate the use of spectral CT for differentiation between noncalcified benign pleural lesions and pleural carcinomatosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients who underwent contrast agent-enhanced late venous phase spectral CT of the chest between June 1, 2016, and July 1, 2018 with histopathologic and/or imaging confirmation of noncalcified pleural lesions were evaluated. Conventional images, iodine overlay (IO) images, and virtual monoenergetic images at 40 keV (hereafter, VMI40keV) were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced spectral chest CT. Four blinded radiologists determined lesion presence and indicated lesion conspicuity and diagnostic certainty. Hounsfield unit attenuation from conventional images and iodine concentration (IC) (in milligrams per milliliter) from IO images were determined. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve determined thresholds for quantitative lesion differentiation and cutoff values were validated in an independent data set. Results Eighty-four patients were included (mean age, 66.2 years; 54 men and 30 women; 44 patients with cancer with confirmed pleural carcinomatosis and 40 patients with benign pleural lesions). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for IC was greater than that of conventional Hounsfield units (0.96 vs 0.91; P ≤ .05, respectively). The optimal IC threshold was 1.3 mg/mL, with comparable sensitivity and specificity when applied to the test data set. The sensitivities to depict pleural carcinomatosis with spectral reconstructions versus conventional CT were 96% (199 of 208) and 83% (172 of 208), respectively, with specificities of 84% (161 of 192) and 63% (120 of 192), respectively (P ≤ .001 each). Conclusion Compared with conventional images, spectral CT with iodine maps improved both quantitative and qualitative determination of pleural carcinomatosis versus noncalcified benign pleural lesions. © RSNA, 2019 See also the editorial by K. S. Lee and H. Y. Lee .