Peering Into the Black Box of Artificial Intelligence: Evaluation Metrics of Machine Learning Methods.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Jan;212(1):38-43. doi: 10.2214/AJR.18.20224. Epub 2018 Oct 17.
Handelman GS1,2, Kok HK3,4, Chandra RV5,6, Razavi AH7,8, Huang S9, Brooks M5,10, Lee MJ2,11, Asadi H5,10,12.
OBJECTIVE: Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are rapidly becoming the most talked about and controversial topics in radiology and medicine. Over the past few years, the numbers of ML- or AI-focused studies in the literature have increased almost exponentially, and ML has become a hot topic at academic and industry conferences. However, despite the increased awareness of ML as a tool, many medical professionals have a poor understanding of how ML works and how to critically appraise studies and tools that are presented to us. Thus, we present a brief overview of ML, explain the metrics used in ML and how to interpret them, and explain some of the technical jargon associated with the field so that readers with a medical background and basic knowledge of statistics can feel more comfortable when examining ML applications.
CONCLUSION: Attention to sample size, overfitting, underfitting, cross validation, as well as a broad knowledge of the metrics of machine learning, can help those with little or no technical knowledge begin to assess machine learning studies. However, transparency in methods and sharing of algorithms is vital to allow clinicians to assess these tools themselves.