Computed tomography coronary angiography is the way forward for evaluation of children with Kawasaki disease.
Glob Cardiol Sci Pract. 2017 Oct 31;2017(3):e201728. doi: 10.21542/gcsp.2017.28.
Singhal M1, Gupta P1, Singh S1, Khandelwal N1.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute idiopathic vasculitis affecting infants and children. Coronary artery abnormalities and myocarditis are the major cardiovascular complications of KD. Coronary artery abnormalities develop in 15-25% of untreated KD. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography has hitherto been considered the modality of choice for evaluation of children with KD. There are, however, several limitations inherent to echocardiography - including limited evaluation of distal vessels, left circumflex artery and poor acoustic window in growing children. Catheter angiography is the gold standard for evaluation of coronary artery abnormalities in older children and adults; however it also has inherent limitations - including complications related to its invasive nature, higher radiation exposure, and inability to evaluate intramural abnormalities. Thus serial invasive coronary angiography studies are not feasible in children. There have been major advances in computed tomography (CT) coronary imaging so that it is now possible to delineate the coronary artery anatomy with higher temporal resolution and motion-free images at all heart rates with acceptable radiation exposure. There is, however, a paucity of literature with regard to the use of this technique in children with KD. In this review, we discuss the application of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in children with KD with special reference to strategies aimed at reducing the effective radiation dose.