Emergency CT for assessment and management of blunt traumatic splenic injuries at a Level 1 Trauma Center: 13-year study.
Emerg Radiol. 2018 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s10140-018-1607-x. [Epub ahead of print]
Margari S1, Garozzo Velloni F2,3, Tonolini M4, Colombo E2, Artioli D2, Allievi NE5, Sammartano F6, Chiara O6, Vanzulli A2,7.
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings, management strategies, and ultimate clinical outcomes in patients with splenic injuries secondary to blunt trauma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved study collected 351 consecutive patients admitted at the Emergency Department (ED) of a Level I Trauma Center with blunt splenic trauma between October 2002 and November 2015. Their MDCT studies were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two radiologists to grade splenic injuries according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ injury scale (OIS) and to detect intraparenchymal (type A) or extraparenchymal (type B) active bleeding and/or contained vascular injuries (CVI). Clinical data, information on management, and outcome were retrieved from the hospital database. Statistical analysis relied on Student's t, chi-squared, and Cohen's kappa tests.
RESULTS: Emergency multiphase MDCT was obtained in 263 hemodynamically stable patients. Interobserver agreement for both AAST grading of injuries and vascular lesions was excellent (k = 0.77). Operative management (OM) was performed in 160 patients (45.58% of the whole cohort), and high-grade (IV and V) OIS injuries and type B bleeding were statistically significant (p < 0.05) predictors of OM. Nonoperative management (NOM) failed in 23 patients out of 191 (12.04%). In 75% of them, NOM failure occurred within 30 h from the trauma event, without significant increase of mortality. Both intraparenchymal and extraparenchymal active bleeding were predictive of NOM failure (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Providing detection and characterization of parenchymal and vascular traumatic lesions, MDCT plays a crucial role for safe and appropriate guidance of ED management of splenic traumas and contributes to the shift toward NOM in hemodynamically stable patients.