Clinical implications of CT findings in mesenteric venous thrombosis at admission.
Emerg Radiol. 2018 Aug;25(4):407-413. doi: 10.1007/s10140-018-1601-3. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
Salim S1, Ekberg O2, Elf J1,3, Zarrouk M1,3, Gottsäter A1,3, Acosta S4,5.
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the association of computed tomography (CT) findings at admission and bowel resection rate in patients with mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT). It was hypothesized that abnormal intestinal findings on CT were associated with a higher bowel resection rate.
METHODS: Retrospective study of MVT patients treated between 2004 and 2017. CT images at admission and at follow-up were scrutinized according to a predefined protocol. Successful recanalization was defined as partial or complete recanalization of the portomesenteric venous thrombosis at the latest CT follow-up (n = 70).
RESULTS: We studied 102 patients (median age 58 years, 61 men). Lifelong anticoagulation was initiated in 64 patients, and bowel resection rate was 17%. No referral letter indicated suspicion of MVT, whereas three indicated suspected intestinal ischemia. Previous venous thromboembolism was associated with increased bowel resection rate (p = 0.049). No patient with acute pancreatitis (n = 17) underwent bowel resection (p = 0.068). The presence of mesenteric oedema (p = 0.014), small bowel wall oedema (p < 0.001), small bowel dilatation (p = 0.005), and ascites (p = 0.021) were associated with increased bowel resection rate. Small bowel wall oedema remained as an independent risk factor associated with bowel resection (OR 15.8 [95% CI 3.2-77.2]). Successful thrombus recanalization was achieved in 66% of patients.
CONCLUSION: The presence of abnormal intestinal findings secondary to MVT confers an excess risk of need of bowel resection due to infarction. Responsible physicians should therefore scrutinize the CT images at diagnosis together with the radiologist to better tailor clinical surveillance.