Primary Lung Tumors in Children: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.
Radiographics. 2018 Nov-Dec;38(7):2151-2172. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018180192.
Lichtenberger JP 3rd1, Biko DM1, Carter BW1, Pavio MA1, Huppmann AR1, Chung EM1.
Primary lung tumors in children are rare, with a narrow range of diagnostic considerations. However, the overlapping imaging appearances of these tumors necessitate attention to key discriminating imaging and pathologic features. In the neonate and infant, the important considerations include pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), infantile fibrosarcoma, and fetal lung interstitial tumor. Among these tumors, imaging findings such as air-filled cysts in type 1 PPB and homogeneously low attenuation of fetal lung interstitial tumors are relatively specific. Key pathologic and genetic discriminators among this group of tumors include the DICER1 germline mutation found in PPB and the t(12,15)(p13;q25) translocation and ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene seen in infantile fibrosarcoma. Primary lung tumors in older children include inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), carcinoid salivary gland-type tumors of the lung, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and other rare entities. IMT, a spindle-cell proliferation with inflammatory elements, is the most common lung tumor in children. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase, a receptor-type protein tyrosine kinase, is present in 50% of these tumors, and this finding may support an imaging diagnosis of IMT. Carcinoid tumors account for a substantial portion of childhood lung tumors, and their characteristic avid enhancement on images corresponds to the compressed fibrovascular stroma histologically. Furthermore, novel imaging agents used with somatostatin receptor analogs have an emerging role in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors. Although less common than mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to recur given the perineural spread seen histologically. Integrating radiologic and pathologic knowledge is critical to accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, and surveillance of primary lung tumors in children.