Deep Learning Electronic Cleansing for Single- and Dual-Energy CT Colonography.
Radiographics. 2018 Nov-Dec;38(7):2034-2050. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170173.
Tachibana R1, Näppi JJ1, Ota J1, Kohlhase N1, Hironaka T1, Kim SH1, Regge D1, Yoshida H1.
Electronic cleansing (EC) is used for computational removal of residual feces and fluid tagged with an orally administered contrast agent on CT colonographic images to improve the visibility of polyps during virtual endoscopic "fly-through" reading. A recent trend in CT colonography is to perform a low-dose CT scanning protocol with the patient having undergone reduced- or noncathartic bowel preparation. Although several EC schemes exist, they have been developed for use with cathartic bowel preparation and high-radiation-dose CT, and thus, at a low dose with noncathartic bowel preparation, they tend to generate cleansing artifacts that distract and mislead readers. Deep learning can be used for improvement of the image quality with EC at CT colonography. Deep learning EC can produce substantially fewer cleansing artifacts at dual-energy than at single-energy CT colonography, because the dual-energy information can be used to identify relevant material in the colon more precisely than is possible with the single x-ray attenuation value. Because the number of annotated training images is limited at CT colonography, transfer learning can be used for appropriate training of deep learning algorithms. The purposes of this article are to review the causes of cleansing artifacts that distract and mislead readers in conventional EC schemes, to describe the applications of deep learning and dual-energy CT colonography to EC of the colon, and to demonstrate the improvements in image quality with EC and deep learning at single-energy and dual-energy CT colonography with noncathartic bowel preparation. ©RSNA, 2018.