Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.
Radiographics. 2018 Sep-Oct;38(5):1403-1420. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018180006.
Marko J1, Wolfman DJ1.
Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that shows smooth muscle differentiation. It is the second most common sarcoma to affect the retroperitoneum. Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas may grow to large sizes before detection and may be an incidental finding at imaging. When symptomatic, retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma may cause compressive symptoms, including pain. Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma most commonly manifests as a large soft-tissue mass, with areas of necrosis. The most frequent pattern of growth is an entirely extravascular mass. Less commonly, leiomyosarcoma may demonstrate both extravascular and intravascular components. Rarely, retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas are completely intravascular, typically arising from the inferior vena cava. Given its variable imaging features, a large variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions are included in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma. In this review, the authors discuss retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma, with emphasis on the pathologic basis of disease, and illustrate the multimodality imaging appearances of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma using cases from the Radiologic Pathology Archives of the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology. The authors review important differential considerations of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma, focusing on the extravascular pattern of growth, and emphasize clinical and imaging features that help radiologists differentiate leiomyosarcoma from the most frequent mimics. The information presented in this review will aid radiologists in fulfilling their key roles in the diagnosis, operative planning, and follow-up of patients with retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma.