Utility of multiphasic multidetector computed tomography in discriminating between clear cell renal cell carcinomas with high and low carbonic anhydrase-IX expression.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018 Oct;43(10):2734-2742. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1546-8.
Young JR1, Coy H2, Kim HJ2, Douek M2, Sisk A3, Belldegrun A4, Pantuck AJ4, Raman SS2.
PURPOSE: To investigate if multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enhancement profiles can distinguish clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) with high carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) expression from ccRCCs with low CA-IX expression.
METHODS: With IRB approval for this retrospective study, we derived a cohort of 105 histologically proven ccRCCs with preoperative 4-phase renal mass MDCT from 2001 to 2013. Following manual segmentation, the computer-assisted detection algorithm selected a 0.5-cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase. CA-IX expression level was determined by immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimens. In the high and low CA-IX expression subgroups, the magnitude of enhancement and washout were compared using t tests; the performance of contrast washout in differentiating between subgroups was assessed with logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression both exhibited peak enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. ccRCCs with high CA-IX expression demonstrated significantly greater relative nephrographic washout than those with low CA-IX expression (18.4% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03). ccRCCs with high CA-IX expression had greater relative excretory washout than ccRCCs with low CA-IX expression with a trend toward significance (33.4% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.05). After controlling for tumor size and stage, for distinguishing ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression, relative excretory washout had a sensitivity, negative predictive value, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 99% (65/66), 88% (7/8), 69% (72/105), and 67% (65/97), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Relative nephrographic and excretory washout may have the potential to help distinguish ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression, but this requires further validation.