Dual-Energy CT in Differentiating Nonperforated Gangrenous Appendicitis From Uncomplicated Appendicitis.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018 Oct;211(4):776-782. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.19274. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
Elbanna KY1,2,3, Mohammed MF1, Chahal T4, Khosa F1, Ali IT1, Berger FH3, Nicolaou S1.
OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis of this study was that the use of dual-energy spectral techniques in CT can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of acute gangrenous appendicitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 209 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of appendicitis. Two board-certified abdominal radiologists reviewed 120-kV simulated images, 40-keV virtual monoenergetic images, and color-coded iodine overlay images. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), accuracy, and interobserver agreement were calculated for each set of images.
RESULTS: Forty-four patients (21.0%) had histopathologic results positive for gangrenous appendicitis. The sensitivity of 40-kV virtual monoenergetic imaging was 100% (44/44); specificity, 81.2% (134/165); PPV, 58.7% (44/75); NPV, 100% (134/134); accuracy, 85.2%; and interobserver agreement, 0.99. The corresponding values for the iodine overlay imaging datasets were 100% (44/44), 80.0% (132/165), 57.1% (44/77), 100% (132/132), 84.2%, and 0.99 and for 120-kV simulated imaging were 22.7% (10/44), 96.4% (159/165), 62.5% (10/16), 82.4% (159/193), 77.5%, and 0.93. All cases of gangrenous appendicitis had true-positive results of virtual monoenergetic and iodine overlay imaging. There were no false-negative results of virtual monoenergetic or iodine overlay imaging.
CONCLUSION: In cases of suspected appendicitis, dual-energy CT that includes virtual monoenergetic and iodine overlay imaging is accurate for confirming and excluding the presence of gangrenous appendicitis with high sensitivity and specificity.