Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Era of Precision Medicine: What Radiologists Should Know.
Korean J Radiol. 2017 Jan-Feb;18(1):42-53. doi: 10.3348/kjr.2017.18.1.42. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
Braschi-Amirfarzan M1, Tirumani SH1, Hodi FS Jr2, Nishino M1.
Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.