Advanced Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer.
Radiographics. 2018 May-Jun;38(3):740-765. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170044. Epub 2018 Apr 20. García-Figueiras R1, Baleato-González S1, Padhani AR1, Luna-Alcalá A1, Marhuenda A1, Vilanova JC1, Osorio-Vázquez I1, Martínez-de-Alegría A1, Gómez-Caamaño A1.
Imaging techniques are clinical decision-making tools in the evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, prognosis, therapy planning, and assessment of response to treatment of CRC. Recent developments and new clinical applications of conventional imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy, dual-energy spectral computed tomography, elastography, advanced computing techniques (including volumetric rendering techniques and machine learning), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based magnetization transfer, and new liver imaging techniques, which may offer additional clinical information in patients with CRC, are summarized. In addition, the clinical value of functional and molecular imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted MR imaging, dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, lymphography with contrast agents, positron emission tomography with different radiotracers, and MR spectroscopy is reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of these modalities are evaluated. Finally, the future role of imaging-based analysis of tumor heterogeneity and multiparametric imaging, the development of radiomics and radiogenomics, and future challenges for imaging of patients with CRC are discussed. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2018.