Fetal Urinary Tract Anomalies: Review of Pathophysiology, Imaging, and Management.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018 May;210(5):1010-1021. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.18371. Epub 2018 Feb 15. Mileto A1, Itani M1, Katz DS2, Siebert JR3, Dighe MK1, Dubinsky TJ1, Moshiri M1.
OBJECTIVE: Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract encompass a complex spectrum of abnormalities that can be detected prenatally by ultrasound. Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract can affect amniotic fluid volume production with the development of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, resulting in fetal pulmonary hypoplasia and, potentially, abnormal development of other fetal structures.
CONCLUSION: We provide an overview of common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract with an emphasis on sonographic patterns as well as pathologic and postnatal correlation, along with brief recommendations for postnatal management. Of note, we render an updated classification of fetal abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract based on the presence or absence of associated urinary tract dilation. In addition, we review the 2014 classification of urinary tract dilation based on the Linthicum multidisciplinary consensus panel.